If the prevalence of cognitive impairment had remained at 2008 levels, an additional 1.13 million older Americans would have had serious cognitive problems in 2017
“We were astonished to see the prevalence of cognitive impairment decrease so sharply over such a short period of time,” says lead author Esme Fuller-Thomson PhD (pictured), director of the University of Toronto's Institute for Life Course & Aging and professor at the Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work (FIFSW) and Department of Family & Community Medicine. “This decline in the prevalence of serious cognitive problems has a cascade of benefits for older adults, their families and caregivers, the health and long-term care system, and the whole US economy.”
The study was based on 10 consecutive waves of the American Community Survey (2008–2017), an annual nationally representative cross-sectional survey of approximately half a million American respondents aged 65 and older, including both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. A total of 5.4 million older Americans were included in the study. In each year, respondents were asked to report if they had “serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions.”
The rate of decline in cognitive impairment was steeper for women than men. Women experienced a decline of 23% over the decade, while their male peers had a 13% decline during that period. The researchers conducted sub-analyses on men and women aged 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, 80–84, 85–89, and 90+. All gender and age cohorts experienced a statistically significant decline in the prevalence of cognitive impairment, with the exception of men aged 65–69.
Further analyses indicated that 60% of the observed decline in serious cognitive impairment between 2008 and 2017 was attributable to generational differences in educational attainment. Extensive previous research has concluded that every additional year of formal schooling lowers the risk of individuals eventually developing dementia. Compared to children born in the 1920s, Americans born in each successive decade had much greater opportunities to pursue post-secondary education.
“It appears that these increasing educational opportunities continue to pay dividends more than half a century later,” says co-author Katherine Ahlin, a recent Master of Social Work graduate from University of Toronto’s FIFSW. “The short-term benefits of increasing educational attainment for income, productivity and the economy are well documented, but our research suggests the long-term benefits on later-life cognitive functioning are substantial. Our findings underline the importance of ensuring each generation has access to quality and affordable education.”
However, the decline in the prevalence of cognitive problems was not entirely explained by generational differences in educational attainment, suggesting there may be other factors at play that warrant future research. The authors hypothesize several possible contributors to these positive trends, such as improvement across the generations in nutrition, declines in smoking and air pollution, and the phase out of leaded gasoline.
“Our finding from this study of over 5 million older Americans is definitely a very welcome, ‘good news story’ indicating a steep decline in the prevalence of cognitive impairment among older Americans,” said Prof. Fuller-Thomson. “We still need to investigate whether these positive trends will continue in the decades ahead and why men’s rates of improvements are lagging behind those of women.”
Photo: Esme Fuller-Thomson (credit: Harry Choi).
NOTES FOR EDITORS
Full study: "A Decade of Decline in Serious Cognitive Problems Among Older Americans: A Population-Based Study of 5.4 Million Respondents" by Esme Fuller-Thomson and Katherine Marie Ahlin (DOI: 10.3233/JAD-210561), published online in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease in advance of the publication of Volume 85, Issue 1. The full article is available at: content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad210561.
For further information, get in touch with Esme Fuller-Thomson, University of Toronto (firstname.lastname@example.org, +1 4162093231). A copy of the paper is available to credentialed journalists upon request.
About the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Now in its 24th year of publication, the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease (JAD) is an international multidisciplinary journal to facilitate progress in understanding the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, genetics, behavior, treatment, and psychology of Alzheimer’s disease. The journal publishes research reports, reviews, short communications, book reviews, and letters-to-the-editor. Groundbreaking research that has appeared in the journal includes novel therapeutic targets, mechanisms of disease, and clinical trial outcomes. JAD has a Journal Impact Factor of 4.472 according to Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate, 2021). The journal is published by IOS Press. j-alz.com