Out of Office: A Study on the Cause of Office Vacancy and Transformation as a Means to Cope and Prevent


Remøy, H.T.

Publication date

# of pages




ISBN print



Delft University Press


The problem of vacant office buildings is an increasingly visible aspect of our cityscapes. A building or space is defined as ‘structurally vacant’ when it has been empty for three years or longer. Structural vacancy leads to depreciation, loss of revenues and a general decline in the urban area. There would seem to be too many office buildings, yet despite the number of vacant properties, new office buildings continue to be developed. What is going on? This book examines the causes of long term office vacancies by studying user preferences and the relationship between building characteristics and structural vacancy. 200 office buildings in Amsterdam, a city with a large office market and high vacancy rates, were evaluated; over half of them with structural vacancies. The solution of transformation to residential use is explored and the book concludes with recommendations for preventing problems in future developments. With its suggestions for how to create office buildings with a longer functional and economic lifespan, the book is of practical interest to investors and developers. The establishment of a connection between the worlds of architectural discourse and statistical research makes this book an important resource for scholars and researchers everywhere.