Use of Experimental Subjects Policy
IOS Press supports the responsible and appropriate use of experimental subjects in all our publications.
Experiments involving human subjects must conform with the Declaration of Helsinki and be approved by a local Institutional Review Board. Compliance with the former and approval by the latter, including the approval number, must be provided in the Methods section or in a separate section at the end of the article.
Participants have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including participants' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the participant (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a participant who is identifiable should be shown the manuscript before it is published.
When informed consent has been obtained, it should be indicated in the Methods section or in a separate section at the end of the article.
When experimental animals are used, the Methods section must briefly but explicitly state measures that were taken to minimize pain or discomfort, e.g., type and dose of anesthetic used. Experiments should be carried out in accordance with the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC) or the Guidelines by the NIH Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare regarding the care and use of animals for experimental procedures.
Ethical considerations, compliance, and protocol approval
We are committed to upholding the integrity of all our publications and provide information about the standards of ethical behavior expected from all parties involved in our Ethics Policy.