Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

Impact Factor


41, 6 issues

Latest issue

41:1-2 online 01 August 2023

Next issue

41:3 scheduled for October 2023

Back volumes

From volume 1, 1989

ISSN print


ISSN online


Aims & Scope

This interdisciplinary journal publishes papers relating to the plasticity and response of the nervous system to accidental or experimental injuries and their interventions, transplantation, neurodegenerative disorders and experimental strategies to improve regeneration or functional recovery and rehabilitation. Experimental and clinical research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant experimental or clinical relevance and interest to a multidisciplinary audience. Experiments on un-anesthetized animals should conform with the standards for the use of laboratory animals as established by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, US National Academy of Sciences. Experiments in which paralytic agents are used must be justified. Patient identity should be concealed. All manuscripts are sent out for blind peer review to editorial board members or outside reviewers. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience is a member of Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

Editorial Board


Bernhard A. Sabel, PhD
Institute of Medical Psychology
Otto-v.-Guericke University of Magdeburg

Leipzigerstr. 44
39120 Magdeburg
Tel.: +49 391 672 1800
Fax: +49 391 672 1803

Deputy Editor

Andrea Antal
University Göttingen, Göttingen

Managing Editor

Sylvia Prilloff, PhD

Editorial Assistant

Steffi Matzke

Founding Editor

D.G. Stein

Senior Associate Editors

William Freed
Baltimore, USA

Lutz Jäncke
University Zurich
Zurich, Switzerland

Josef Rauschecker
Georgetown University
Washington, USA

Paolo Maria Rossini
Catholic University of Rome
Rome, Italy

Donald G. Stein
Emory University
Atlanta, USA

Doychin N. Angelov
University of Cologne
Cologne, Germany

Associate Editors

Si-nae Ahn
Cheongju University

Amir Amedi
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Andrea Antal
University Göttingen

Chandramallika Basak
University of Texas at Dallas

Luca Battaglini
University of Padova

Michael Borich
University of British Columbia
Rocco S. Calabrò 
IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino-Pulejo

Clara Casco
University of Padova

Carmelo Chisari
University Hospital of Pisa
Sylvie Chokron
Université Paris-Descartes and CNRS

Leonardo Cohen

Branch Coslett
University of Pennsylvania
Rima Dada
All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Tanuj Dada
All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Gary Dunbar
Central Michigan University

Shamali Dusane
University of Illinois at Chicago
Ragab K. Elnaggar
Cairo University
Gabriel de Erausquin
University of Texas Rio Grande

Seth Finklestein
Biotrofix Inc.

Felipe Fregni
Harvard Medical School
Christian Gerloff
University medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

Alexander C.H. Geurts
Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Centre
The Netherlands
Alfredo Gorio
University of Milan

Amir Hadanny
Shamir Medical Center, Bar Ilan University

Roy Hamilton
University of Pennsylvania

Li He
Sichuan University

Paco Herson
Oregon Health and Science University

Yong Hu
The University of Hong Kong

Trisha Kesar
Emory University

Yun-Hee Kim
Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine

Anthony E. Kline
University of Pittsburgh

Chandramouli Krishnan
University of Michigan

Eun Kyoung Kang
Kangwon National University College

Elisabetta Ládavas
University of Bologna

Teri Lawton
Early Childhood Parenting Institute

Shelly Levy-Tzedek
Hebrew University in Jerusalem

Pei-Hsin Liu
Tzu Chi University

Song Liu
Capital Medical University

Martin Lotze
University Medicine Greifswald

Niklas Marklund
Lund University

Lofti Merabet
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Harvard Medical School
Giovanni Morone
IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia
Asok K. Mukhopadhyay
All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Antonio Nardone
University of Eastern Piedmont and Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri (IRCCS)

Xavier Navarro
University Barcelona

Xavier E. Ndone-Ekane
University of Eastern Finland
Randolph Nudo
University Kansas

Souichi Ohta
Kyoto University

Michihiro Osumi
Kio University
Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Beth. Israel Hosp.

Cecilia Perin
University of Milan-Bicocca

Alessandro Picelli
University of Verona

Daniele Piscitelli
University of Connecticut
Storrs, USA

Thomas Platz
Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University

Uri Polat
Tel Aviv University

Sung-Bom Pyun
Korea University College of Medicine

Julio J. Ramirez
Davidson College

Robert W. Regenhardt
Massachusetts General Hospital

Elena Sergeeva
Harvard Medical School

Mircea A. Schoenfeld
Kliniken Schmieder Heidelberg
Mattias K. Sköld
Karolinska Institutet

Kwok-Fai So
University of Hong Kong

Chiang-Soon Song
Chosun University

Cathy Stinear
The University of Auckland
New Zealand

Peter A. Tass
Stanford University

Edward Taub
CI Therapy Research Group & Taub Therapy Clinic

Solon Thanos
University of Münster

Hugo Théoret
Université de Montréal

Lechoslaw Turski
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Gitendra Uswatte
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Chandler L. Walker
Indiana University

Stephen Waxman
Yale University School of Medicine

Reinhard Werth
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich

Steven L. Wolf
Emory University

Youngkeun Woo
Jeonju University
Chuansheng Zhao
China Medical University

Mei Zhao
China Medical University

Author Guidelines




When an article is accepted for publication, authors are required to pay a publication fee of €750 / US$750. Details of how to complete the payment will be given at the article's acceptance. Paid fees will not be restituted if articles are withdrawn or need to be retracted after acceptance. A waiver request for the publication fee should be submitted before the initial submission of a paper. Please send your title, abstract, keyword list and author listing including affiliations (and if available ORCID IDs) to the editorial office (, along with your motivation for the waiver. Your request will be evaluated. Waivers are available for corresponding authors from low-income countries as identified by Research4Life. There are no waivers given for the open access fee since this is a completely optional fee.


In addition to the publication fee, authors have the option to make their article freely available on the Publisher's journal platform. For a charge of €1500/US$1500 (CC BY-NC 4.0) or €2150/US$2150 (CC BY 4.0) your article (including pre-publication) will be freely accessible immediately upon publication. A form to request open access will be supplied with the acceptance letter. 

See the IOS Press Open Library to discover about the types of open access and funder’s mandates, and also to check if there are any institutional agreements that you might be eligible for.


Manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

By submitting my article to this journal, I agree to the Author Copyright Agreement, the IOS Press Ethics Policy, and the IOS Press Privacy Policy.

Submission of an article is understood to imply that the article is original and unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Any possible conflict of interest, financial or otherwise, related to the submitted work must be clearly indicated in the manuscript.

The article type (Research paper, Review paper, Editorial, Case Report, Letter to the Editor, etc) should be clearly mentioned in the cover letter to help the editorial process.

This journal operates with single-blind peer review. If the author prefers double-blind peer review, then please submit the manuscript excluding the author listing and make sure the document is anonymized, and list the authors and affiliations only in the cover letter for the Editor.

Resubmissions should include the manuscript number in the cover letter. The author's replies to the reviewer comments should be included within the revised manuscript itself (at the top). The revised paper should always be a Word document.

Authors are requested to submit their manuscript electronically to Note that the manuscript should be uploaded as one file with tables and figures included. This file can be a Word document, a PDF, or an embedded or zip file (.rar) if separate high-resolution figures or a supplemental file such as a video are also to be included with the submission (the file size maximum for a video is 25MB). If the video is too large to submit, please contact to arrange a file transfer. For further information about submitting supplementary data see “Supplementary Data.”

All correspondence concerning editorial matters as well as information regarding submissions should be sent to: Editor-in-Chief: Bernhard A. Sabel, PhD Institute of Medical Psychology Otto-v.-Guericke University of Magdeburg Leipzigerstr. 44 39120 Magdeburg Germany Tel. +49 391 672 1800 Fax +49 391 672 1803 Email: Editorial Assistant: Steffi Matzke


Procedures involving experiments on human subjects should be in accord with the ethical standards of the Committee on Human Experimentation of the institution in which the experiments were done or in accord with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975. The author must state compliance in the cover letter and in the Methods section of the article.

Procedures involving experimentation on animal subjects should be in accord with either the guide of the institution in which the experiments were done, or with the National Research Council’s guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. The author must state compliance in the cover letter and in the Methods section of the article.

Preferably patients in figures should be unrecognizable. Authors are responsible for obtaining patient permission for use of the material from all recognizable participants in photographs, videos, or other information that may be published in the Journal or on the journal’s website. A statement that permission was granted by the patient must accompany the figure legend. Do not use study participants' names, initials, or hospital numbers anywhere in the manuscript (including figures).


Organization of the paper and style of presentation
Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are advised to consult a professional English language editing service or a native English speaker prior to submission.

Manuscripts should be prepared with wide margins and double spacing throughout, including the abstract, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Try to avoid the excessive use of italics and bold face. Manuscripts should be organized in the following order:

  • Title page including Abtract and Keywords
  • Body of text (divided by subheadings)
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figure captions
  • Figures

Headings and subheadings should be numbered and typed on a separate line, without indentation. SI units should be used, i.e., the units based on the metre, kilogramme, second, etc.

Title page

  • Title (should be clear, descriptive and concise).
  • Full name(s) of author(s), with each author's last name in CAPITAL LETTERS. Please indicate who is the corresponding author. Full affiliation(s). Delineate affiliations with lowercase letters. Present address of author(s), if different from affiliation. Running title (45 characters or less, including spaces). Complete address of corresponding author, including telephone number and email address * Leave the author information blank if double-blind peer review is wished for, but do include the information in the cover letter.

Changes in Authorship
When submitting the manuscript the author listing and order should be final. If any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list does need to be made after submission, this can be done only before acceptance and with the Editor's approval. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (1) the reason for the change in author list and (2) written confirmation from all authors, including the affected author, that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.

Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in an Erratum.

Please read the IOS Press authorship policy for further information.


Include individuals or companies which have assisted with your study, including advisors, administrative support and suppliers who may have donated or given materials used in the study.

If there are no acknowledgments, then do still include this section and insert: "The authors have no acknowledgments to report."


Include all funding sources for the study. If there is no funding involved, then do still include this section and insert: "The authors have no funding to report."

Conflict of Interest

All affiliations or financial involvement (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants, patents received or pending, royalties) with any organization or entity with a financial interest in, or in financial competition with, the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript must be disclosed in the submitted manuscript.

If there is no conflict of interest to declare, do still include this section and insert "The authors have no conflict of interest to report". If an author is also on the Editorial Board of this journal, the following statement should be included in this section: "<AUTHOR> is an Editorial Board member of this journal, but was not involved in the peer-review process nor had access to any information regarding its peer review.''

Authors are requested to use the APA (American Psychological Association) citation style. APA in-text citations should include the author's last name followed by the year of publication. All publications cited in the text should be presented in an alphabetical list of references at the end of the manuscript. Submitted articles can be listed as (author(s), unpublished data). See their website for more information. Authors are responsible for checking the accuracy of all references. Manuscripts will not be considered if they do not conform to the APA citation guidelines.

References must be listed alphabetically in APA style:
Amengual, J. L., Rojo, N., Veciana De Las Heras, M., Marco-Pallarés, J., Grau-Sánchez, J., Schneider, S., ... & Rodríguez-Fornells, A. (2013). Sensorimotor plasticity after music-supported therapy in chronic stroke patients revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. PLoS One, 8(4), e61883.
Anderson, A. K. (2005). Affective influences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 154, 258–281.
Anderson, A. K., Christoff, K., Panitz, D., De Rosa, E., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2003). Neural correlates of the automatic processing of threat facial signals. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 5627–5633.
Armony, J. L., & Dolan, R. J. (2002). Modulation of spatial attention by fear-conditioned stimuli: An event-related fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 40, 817–826.
Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56,893–897.
Calvo, M. G., & Lang, P. J. (2004). Gaze patterns when looking at emotional pictures: Motivationally biased attention. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 221–243.
Carretie, L., Hinojosa, J. A., Martin-Loeches, M., Mecado, F., & Tapia, M. (2004). Automatic attention to emotional stimuli: Neural correlates. Human Brain Mapping, 22, 290–299.

Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it is possible to incorporate the information in the text. If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers and kept as short as possible.

Number as Table 1, Table 2 etc, and refer to all of them in the text. Each table should be provided on a separate page of the manuscript. Tables should not be included in the text.Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead. Any explanations essential to the understanding of the table should be given in footnotes at the bottom of the table.

Number figures as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc and refer to all of them in the text. Each figure should be provided on a separate sheet. Figures should not be included in the text. Colour figures can be included, provided the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author. For the file formats of the figures please take the following into account:

  • Line art should be have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi, save as EPS or TIFF
  • Grayscales (incl photos) should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (no lettering), or 500 dpi (when there is lettering); save as tiff
  • Do not save figures as JPEG, this format may lose information in the process
  • Do not use figures taken from the Internet, the resolution will be too low for printing
  • Do not use colour in your figures if they are to be printed in black & white, as this will reduce the print quality (note that in software often the default is colour, you should change the settings)
  • For figures that should be printed in colour, please send a CMYK encoded EPS or TIFF

Figures should be designed with the format of the page of the journal in mind. They should be of such a size as to allow a reduction of 50%. On maps and other figures where a scale is needed, use bar scales rather than numerical ones, i.e., do not use scales of the type 1:10,000. This avoids problems if the figures need to be reduced. Each figure should have a self-explanatory caption. The captions to all figures should be typed on a separate sheet of the manuscript. Photographs are only acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity.

Colour figures
It is possible to have figures printed in colour, provided the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author. The charges will be specified with the proof delivery. Online the figures will be published in full colour at no charge.

Supplementary Material
Supplementary material can be submitted with the manuscript, included within the manuscript after the Figures and Tables (or otherwise after the References). Each supplementary item should have a legend and should not exceed the file size of 10MB. Supplemental videos can be submitted separately (see top of page for submission guidelines of videos). A short description of the supplementary items should be included under the header of “Supplementary Material” within the manuscript before the “References”. Supplementary material will be made available in the format in which it was provided. Large datasets should be hosted on the author’s own or institute’s website or in an appropriate database, and should be properly cited within the manuscript.


Copyright of your article
Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that they have read and agreed to the terms of the IOS Press Author Copyright Agreement.

Article sharing
Authors of journal articles are permitted to self-archive and share their work through institutional repositories, personal websites, and preprint servers. Authors have the right to use excerpts of their article in other works written by the authors themselves, provided that the original work is properly cited. The consent for sharing an article, in whole or in part, depends on the version of the article that is shared, where it is shared, and the copyright license under which the article is published. Please refer to the IOS Press Article Sharing Policy for further information.

Quoting from other publications
Authors, when quoting from someone else's work or when considering reproducing figures or tables from a book or journal article, should make sure that they are not infringing a copyright. Although in general authors may quote from other published works, permission should be obtained from the holder of the copyright if there will be substantial extracts or reproduction of tables, plates, or other figures. If the copyright holder is not the author of the quoted or reproduced material, it is recommended that the permission of the author should also be sought. Material in unpublished letters and manuscripts is also protected and must not be published unless permission has been obtained. Submission of a paper will be interpreted as a statement that the author has obtained all the necessary permission. A suitable acknowledgement of any borrowed material must always be made.

Quoting from Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Permissions for use of materials published in RNN Reports (figures, tables, thesis publication) can be requested at


Accepted articles will be placed online as "pre-press" articles two weeks after acceptance. The corresponding author will receive the PDF proof around the same time, and is asked to check this proof carefully (the publisher will execute a cursory check only). Corrections other than printer's errors should be avoided. Costs arising from excessive corrections will be charged to the authors. The pre-press file will remain as the uncorrected proof version until the article is published in an issue and the final published version replaces the pre-press file.


A growing number of funding agencies now require that research articles they have funded must be made open access. This may be either by mandating deposit in repositories after an embargo period or by stipulating that research is published as open access. Publishing in this journal complies with all major funding agency requirements.


Complimentary copy
The corresponding author of a contribution to the journal is entitled to receive 1 author’s copy of the pdf free of charge, unless otherwise stated. Free copies will not be provided for conference proceedings and abstract issues.

How to order reprints, a pdf file, journals, or IOS Press books.
An order form for reprints, additional journal copies or a non-watermarked pdf file will be provided along with the pdf proof. If you wish to order reprints of an earlier published article, please contact the publisher for a quotation. IOS Press, Fax: +31 20 6870039. Email: An author is entitled to 25 % discount on IOS Press books. See Author's Discount (25%) on all IOS Press book publications.

Authors of published articles (non-prepress, final articles) will be contacted by Kudos. Kudos is a service that helps researchers maximize the impact and visibility of their research. It allows authors to enrich their articles with lay metadata, add links to related materials and promote their articles through the Kudos system to a wider public. Authors will receive no more than three emails: one invitation and a maximum of two reminders to register for the service and link the published article to their profile. Using and registering for Kudos remains entirely optional. For more information, please have a look at our authors section.


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Abstracted/Indexed in

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Web of Science: Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch®)

Open Access

By default, articles published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience are available only to institutions and individuals with access rights. However, the journal offers all authors the option to purchase open access publication for their article as part of the IOS Press Open Library. This means that the final published version will be freely available to anyone worldwide, indefinitely, under a Creative Commons license and without the need to purchase access to the article. This is also referred to as “gold” open access.

Gold open access pricing
Authors who choose gold open access publication will be subject to an article publication charge of €1500 / US1500 for publication under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license or €2150 / US$2150 for publication under the CC BY 4.0 license. Pricing is exclusive of possible taxes. After an article is accepted for publication, the corresponding author will be informed regarding the open access option during the production stages, and will have the opportunity to purchase open access for their article. It could be that the open access fee of an article is waived completely due an institutional agreement IOS Press has with the corresponding authors' institution. Please check the institutional agreements page for details.

Green open access
Authors who do not make use of the gold open access option may still make their article freely available using self-archiving, also referred to as green open access. Authors may make their final accepted manuscript available for free download from their personal or institutional website or institutional archive. This model is free for the author.

PubMedCentral deposits
This journal deposits all open access articles in PubMedCentral (PMC) as part of the IOS Press Open Library. If an author chooses to publish their paper with open access then the publisher will deposit the article in PMC upon publication.

Peer Review Policy

Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience operates a rigorous, timely, blinded peer review process (with an option for double-blind if requested) by experts in the field. Please visit our reviewer guidelines for further information about how to conduct a review.

Manuscripts submitted to the journal will be assessed for suitability for publication in the journal by the Editor-in-Chief. Manuscripts that are deemed unsuitable may be rejected without peer review by the Editor-in-Chief and/or the Associate Editors, and the author will be informed as soon as possible.

Manuscripts that are deemed suitable for peer review are assigned to appropriate anonymous referees (a minimum of two) for confidential review. Referee reports are then assessed by the the Editor-in-Chief. Once approved this decision is then conveyed to the author along with the referees’ anonymized reports.

The initial decision will be one of the following: rejection, acceptance without revision, or potentially acceptable after minor or major revisions. Revised manuscripts will be appraised by the Editor-in-Chief, who may seek the opinion of referees (prior or new) before making a decision. This decision is then conveyed to the author along with the anonymized referees’ reports. Once accepted, manuscripts are normally published on-line without delay and appear in the next available print issue (published quarterly).

The Editor-in-Chief has ultimate responsibility for what is published in the journal. Authors may appeal decisions by contacting the Editor-in-Chief (at Authors will be informed in writing of the result of their appeal.

Newsletter – Be sure to sign up to the RNN newsletter to receive alerts of new issues and other journal news. Sign up via this link & you can read the latest newsletter here

Latest Special Issue – View all our journal articles here, including the latest special issue (Vol.37, Iss.6) covering the topic: Low Vision.

Journal Impact Factor – The latest Journal Citation Reports sees RNN's Impact Factor changing to 2.976 (Source Clarivate, 2022), which is a 24% increase from the previous value. The journal is listed in the category of Neurosciences (SCIE).

Sustainable Development Goals

The content of this journal relates to SDG:

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