Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

Impact Factor


42, 4 issues

Latest issue

41:5-6 online 16 February 2024

Next issue

42:1 scheduled for April 2024

Back volumes

From volume 1, 1989

ISSN print


ISSN online


Aims & Scope

This interdisciplinary journal publishes papers relating to the plasticity and response of the nervous system to accidental or experimental injuries and their interventions, transplantation, neurodegenerative disorders and experimental strategies to improve regeneration or functional recovery and rehabilitation. Experimental and clinical research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant experimental or clinical relevance and interest to a multidisciplinary audience. Experiments on un-anesthetized animals should conform with the standards for the use of laboratory animals as established by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, US National Academy of Sciences. Experiments in which paralytic agents are used must be justified. Patient identity should be concealed. All manuscripts are sent out for blind peer review to editorial board members or outside reviewers. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience is a member of Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

Editorial Board


Les Turski, MD, PhD
Director at DZNE (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen) Clinical Translational Science
Clinical and Health Care Research

Deputy Editors

Andrea Antal, PhD
University Göttingen, Göttingen

Doychin Angelov, MD, PhD
University of Cologne

Chandramouli Krishnan, PhD 
University of Michigan
Michigan, USA

Editors-in-Chief Emeritus

Donald G. Stein
Bernhard Sabel

Senior Associate Editors

William Freed
Baltimore, USA

Lutz Jäncke
University Zurich
Zurich, Switzerland

Josef Rauschecker
Georgetown University
Washington, USA

Paolo Maria Rossini
Catholic University of Rome
Rome, Italy

Donald G. Stein
Emory University
Atlanta, USA

Associate Editors

Si-nae Ahn
Cheongju University

Amir Amedi
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Chandramallika Basak
University of Texas at Dallas

Luca Battaglini
University of Padova

Michael Borich
University of British Columbia
Rocco S. Calabrò 
IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino-Pulejo

Clara Casco
University of Padova

Carmelo Chisari
University Hospital of Pisa
Sylvie Chokron
Université Paris-Descartes and CNRS

Leonardo Cohen

Branch Coslett
University of Pennsylvania
Rima Dada
All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Tanuj Dada
All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Gary Dunbar
Central Michigan University

Shamali Dusane
University of Illinois at Chicago
Ragab K. Elnaggar
Cairo University
Gabriel de Erausquin
University of Texas Rio Grande

Seth Finklestein
Biotrofix Inc.

Felipe Fregni
Harvard Medical School
Christian Gerloff
University medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

Alexander C.H. Geurts
Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Centre
The Netherlands
Alfredo Gorio
University of Milan

Amir Hadanny
Shamir Medical Center, Bar Ilan University

Roy Hamilton
University of Pennsylvania

Li He
Sichuan University

Paco Herson
Oregon Health and Science University

Yong Hu
The University of Hong Kong

Trisha Kesar
Emory University

Yun-Hee Kim
Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine

Anthony E. Kline
University of Pittsburgh

Eun Kyoung Kang
Kangwon National University College

Elisabetta Ládavas
University of Bologna

Teri Lawton
Early Childhood Parenting Institute

Shelly Levy-Tzedek
Hebrew University in Jerusalem

Pei-Hsin Liu
Tzu Chi University

Song Liu
Capital Medical University

Martin Lotze
University Medicine Greifswald

Niklas Marklund
Lund University

Lofti Merabet
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Harvard Medical School
Giovanni Morone
IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia
Asok K. Mukhopadhyay
All India Institute of Medical Sciences

Antonio Nardone
University of Eastern Piedmont and Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri (IRCCS)

Xavier Navarro
University Barcelona

Xavier E. Ndone-Ekane
University of Eastern Finland
Randolph Nudo
University Kansas

Souichi Ohta
Kyoto University

Michihiro Osumi
Kio University
Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Beth. Israel Hosp.

Cecilia Perin
University of Milan-Bicocca

Alessandro Picelli
University of Verona

Daniele Piscitelli
University of Connecticut
Storrs, USA

Thomas Platz
Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University

Uri Polat
Tel Aviv University

Sung-Bom Pyun
Korea University College of Medicine

Julio J. Ramirez
Davidson College

Robert W. Regenhardt
Massachusetts General Hospital

Elena Sergeeva
Harvard Medical School

Mircea A. Schoenfeld
Kliniken Schmieder Heidelberg
Mattias K. Sköld
Karolinska Institutet

Kwok-Fai So
University of Hong Kong

Chiang-Soon Song
Chosun University

Cathy Stinear
The University of Auckland
New Zealand

Peter A. Tass
Stanford University

Edward Taub
CI Therapy Research Group & Taub Therapy Clinic

Solon Thanos
University of Münster

Hugo Théoret
Université de Montréal

Lechoslaw Turski
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Gitendra Uswatte
University of Alabama at Birmingham

Chandler L. Walker
Indiana University

Stephen Waxman
Yale University School of Medicine

Reinhard Werth
Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich

Steven L. Wolf
Emory University

Youngkeun Woo
Jeonju University
Chuansheng Zhao
China Medical University

Mei Zhao
China Medical University

Author Guidelines


Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience now peer reviews papers in ScholarOne.


If you are submitting a REVISION of a paper that was previously submitted and peer reviewed in MsTracker, then please submit your revision HERE. Please do not submit new submissions through this link.


When an article is accepted for publication, authors are required to pay a publication fee of €750 / US$750. Details of how to complete the payment will be given at the article's acceptance. Paid fees will not be restituted if articles are withdrawn or need to be retracted after acceptance. A waiver request for the publication fee should be submitted before the initial submission of a paper. Please send your title, abstract, keyword list and author listing including affiliations (and if available ORCID IDs) to the editorial office (, along with your motivation for the waiver. Your request will be evaluated. Waivers are available for corresponding authors from low-income countries as identified by Research4Life. There are no waivers given for the open access fee since this is a completely optional fee.


In addition to the publication fee, authors have the option to make their article freely available on the Publisher's journal platform. For a charge of €1500/US$1500 (CC BY-NC 4.0) or €2150/US$2150 (CC BY 4.0) your article (including pre-publication) will be freely accessible immediately upon publication. A form to request open access will be supplied with the acceptance letter. 

See the IOS Press Open Library to discover about the types of open access and funder’s mandates, and also to check if there are any institutional agreements that you might be eligible for.


Manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

By submitting an article to this journal, the author agrees to the Author Copyright Agreement, the IOS Press Ethics Policy, and the IOS Press Privacy Policy.

This journal operates with single-blind peer review. If the author prefers double-blind peer review, then please submit the manuscript excluding the author listing and make sure the document is anonymized, but ensure all authors are included in the submission questionnaire.

The author's replies to the reviewer comments should be included within the revised manuscript itself (at the top). The revised paper should always be a Word document. Ideally the author should submit a revised manuscript with tracked or highlighted changes, so that the editor and reviewer can quickly find the updated sections.

Authors are requested to submit their manuscript electronically to ScholarOne. The file should be a Word document. Figures, tables and supplemental files including videos are submitted separately. The peer review system will compile the files into a PDF for peer review. If there is any issue with submitting files then please contact the editorial office. For further information about submitting supplementary files see the section “Supplementary Data.”


IOS Press has adopted Sage’s Publication ethics policies.  Please go to:  
Publication ethics and research integrity: policy guidelines for authors | SAGE Publications Ltd for details.


Organization of the paper and style of presentation
Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are advised to consult a professional English language editing service or a native English speaker prior to submission.

Manuscripts should be prepared with wide margins and double spacing throughout, including the abstract, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Try to avoid the excessive use of italics and bold face. Manuscripts should be organized in the following order:

  • Title page including Abstract and Keywords
  • Body of text (divided by subheadings)
  • Acknowledgments, Funding, and Conflict statements
  • References
  • Table captions
  • Figure captions

Headings and subheadings should be numbered and typed on a separate line, without indentation. SI units should be used, i.e., the units based on the meter, kilogram, second, etc.

Title page

  • Title (should be clear, descriptive and concise).
  • Full name(s) of author(s), with each author's last name in CAPITAL LETTERS. Please indicate who is the corresponding author. Full affiliation(s). Delineate affiliations with lowercase letters. Present address of author(s), if different from affiliation. Running title (45 characters or less, including spaces). Complete address of corresponding author, including telephone number and email address * Leave the author information blank if double-blind peer review is wished for, but do include the information in the cover letter.

Changes to authorship
IOS Press has adopted Sage’s Authorship Policy.  Please go to:  Authorship guidelines | SAGE Publications Ltd for details.


Include individuals or companies which have assisted with your study, including advisors, administrative support and suppliers who may have donated or given materials used in the study.

If there are no acknowledgments, then do still include this section and insert: "The authors have no acknowledgments to report."


Include all funding sources for the study. If there is no funding involved, then do still include this section and insert: "The authors have no funding to report."

Conflict of Interest

All affiliations or financial involvement (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants, patents received or pending, royalties) with any organization or entity with a financial interest in, or in financial competition with, the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript must be disclosed in the submitted manuscript.

If there is no conflict of interest to declare, do still include this section and insert "The authors have no conflict of interest to report". If an author is also on the Editorial Board of this journal, the following statement should be included in this section: "<AUTHOR> is an Editorial Board member of this journal, but was not involved in the peer-review process of this article nor had access to any information regarding its peer review.''

Datasets/Data Availability Statement (Required for Research Reports, Short Communications, and Systematic Reviews/Meta-Analyses)

All datasets and data articles cited in your manuscript should be included in the reference list of your article (not in a separate box or in the article text). Data references should include: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and identifier (DOI/URL/etc.). Authors should include a Data Availability statement at the end of the manuscript (before the References) to describe the availability or the absence of shared data. Authors are required to deposit sequence or proteomic data into a public repository (eg. GEO, Chorus) and include a link to the repository and data, and encouraged to publicly archive their research data including, but not limited to: software, algorithms, protocols, methods, and/or materials. Exceptions are made if sharing data compromises ethical standards or legal requirements.

Examples for your paper's "Data Availability" statement:

  1. The data supporting the findings of this study are openly available in [repository name] at [DOI and/or URL]. These data were derived from the following resources available in the public domain: [list resources and URLs].
  2. The data supporting the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to privacy or ethical restrictions.
  3. The data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article and/or its supplementary material.
  4. Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during this study.

Authors are requested to use the APA (American Psychological Association) citation style. APA in-text citations should include the author's last name followed by the year of publication. All publications cited in the text should be presented in an alphabetical list of references at the end of the manuscript. Submitted articles can be listed as (author(s), unpublished data). See their website for more information. Authors are responsible for checking the accuracy of all references. Manuscripts will not be considered if they do not conform to the APA citation guidelines.

References must be listed alphabetically in APA style:
Amengual, J. L., Rojo, N., Veciana De Las Heras, M., Marco-Pallarés, J., Grau-Sánchez, J., Schneider, S., ... & Rodríguez-Fornells, A. (2013). Sensorimotor plasticity after music-supported therapy in chronic stroke patients revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. PLoS One, 8(4), e61883.
Anderson, A. K. (2005). Affective influences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 154, 258–281.
Anderson, A. K., Christoff, K., Panitz, D., De Rosa, E., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2003). Neural correlates of the automatic processing of threat facial signals. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 5627–5633.
Armony, J. L., & Dolan, R. J. (2002). Modulation of spatial attention by fear-conditioned stimuli: An event-related fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 40, 817–826.
Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56,893–897.
Calvo, M. G., & Lang, P. J. (2004). Gaze patterns when looking at emotional pictures: Motivationally biased attention. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 221–243.
Carretie, L., Hinojosa, J. A., Martin-Loeches, M., Mecado, F., & Tapia, M. (2004). Automatic attention to emotional stimuli: Neural correlates. Human Brain Mapping, 22, 290–299.

Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it is possible to incorporate the information in the text. If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers and kept as short as possible.

Number as Table 1, Table 2 etc, and refer to all of them in the text. Tables should not be included in the text. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead. Any explanations essential to the understanding of the table should be given in footnotes at the bottom of the table.

Number figures as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc and refer to all of them in the text. Figures should not be included in the text. For the file formats of the figures please take the following into account:

  • Line art should be have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi, save as EPS or TIFF
  • Grayscales (incl photos) should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (no lettering), or 500 dpi (when there is lettering); save as tiff
  • Do not save figures as JPEG, this format may lose information in the process
  • Do not use figures taken from the Internet, the resolution will be too low for printing
  • For figures that should be printed in colour, please send a CMYK encoded EPS or TIFF

Figures should be designed with the format of the page of the journal in mind. They should be of such a size as to allow a reduction of 50%. On maps and other figures where a scale is needed, use bar scales rather than numerical ones, i.e., do not use scales of the type 1:10,000. This avoids problems if the figures need to be reduced. Each figure should have a self-explanatory caption. The captions to all figures should be typed on a separate sheet of the manuscript. Photographs are only acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity.

Colour figures
It is possible to have figures printed in colour, provided the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author. The charges will be specified with the proof delivery. In the online contents the figures will be published in full colour at no charge.

Supplementary Material
Supplementary material can be submitted separately with the manuscript, included within the manuscript after the Figures and Tables (or otherwise after the References). Each supplementary item should have a legend and should not exceed the file size of 10MB. Supplemental videos can be submitted separately (see top of page for submission guidelines of videos). A short description of the supplementary items should be included under the header of “Supplementary Material” within the manuscript before the “References”. Supplementary material will be made available in the format in which it was provided. Large datasets should be hosted on the author’s own or institute’s website or in an appropriate database, and should be properly cited within the manuscript.


Copyright of your article
Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that they have read and agreed to the terms of the IOS Press Author Copyright Agreement.

Article sharing
IOS Press adopted Sage’s Article Sharing Policy from 8th of July 2024. 
Please go to:  Sage’s Author Archiving and Re-Use Guidelines | SAGE Publications Ltd for details. If your manuscript was submitted prior to 8th of July 2024, please contact with details of your enquiry.

Quoting from Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Permissions for use of materials published in RNN Reports (figures, tables, thesis publication) can be requested at


The corresponding author will receive a pdf proof and is asked to check this proof carefully (the publisher will execute a cursory check only). Corrections other than printer's errors, however, should be avoided. Costs arising from such corrections will be charged to the authors.

The corrected proof is published online in the journal’s pre-press module and is indexed by PubMed where it appears as [Epub ahead of Print]. This is not the final version. When the article is published in an issue, the final published version replaces the pre-press file. Pre-press articles are fully citable by using their DOI number.


A growing number of funding agencies now require that research articles they have funded must be made open access. This may be either by mandating deposit in repositories after an embargo period or by stipulating that research is published as open access. Publishing in this journal complies with all major funding agency requirements.


Complimentary copy
The corresponding author of a contribution to the journal is entitled to receive 1 author’s copy of the pdf free of charge, unless otherwise stated. Free copies will not be provided for conference proceedings and abstract issues.

How to order reprints, a pdf file, journals, or IOS Press books.
An order form for reprints, additional journal copies or a non-watermarked pdf file will be provided along with the pdf proof. If you wish to order reprints of an earlier published article, please contact the publisher for a quotation. IOS Press, Fax: +31 20 6870039. Email: An author is entitled to 25 % discount on IOS Press books. See Author's Discount (25%) on all IOS Press book publications.

Authors of published articles (non-prepress, final articles) will be contacted by Kudos. Kudos is a service that helps researchers maximize the impact and visibility of their research. It allows authors to enrich their articles with lay metadata, add links to related materials and promote their articles through the Kudos system to a wider public. Authors will receive no more than three emails: one invitation and a maximum of two reminders to register for the service and link the published article to their profile. Using and registering for Kudos remains entirely optional. For more information, please have a look at our authors section.


Would you like some pointers on how to help your research achieve a wider reach and greater impact? Please consult our Promotional Toolkit for Authors for tips.

Please visit the IOS Press Authors page for further information.

Abstracted/Indexed in

Academic Search
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Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)
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Elsevier BIOBASE
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OA @ PubMedCentral
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SciVerse Scopus
Ulrich's Periodicals Directory
Web of Science: Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch®)

Open Access

By default, articles published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience are available only to institutions and individuals with access rights. However, the journal offers all authors the option to purchase open access publication for their article as part of the IOS Press Open Library. This means that the final published version will be freely available to anyone worldwide, indefinitely, under a Creative Commons license and without the need to purchase access to the article. This is also referred to as “gold” open access.

Gold open access pricing
Authors who choose gold open access publication will be subject to an article publication charge of €1500 / US1500 for publication under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license or €2150 / US$2150 for publication under the CC BY 4.0 license. Pricing is exclusive of possible taxes. After an article is accepted for publication, the corresponding author will be informed regarding the open access option during the production stages, and will have the opportunity to purchase open access for their article. It could be that the open access fee of an article is waived completely due an institutional agreement IOS Press has with the corresponding authors' institution. Please check the institutional agreements page for details.

Green open access
Authors who do not make use of the gold open access option may still make their article freely available using self-archiving, also referred to as green open access. Authors may make their final accepted manuscript available for free download from their personal or institutional website or institutional archive. This model is free for the author.

PubMedCentral deposits
This journal deposits all open access articles in PubMedCentral (PMC) as part of the IOS Press Open Library. If an author chooses to publish their paper with open access then the publisher will deposit the article in PMC upon publication.

Peer Review Policy

Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience operates a rigorous, timely, blinded peer review process (with an option for double-blind if requested) by experts in the field. Please visit our reviewer guidelines for further information about how to conduct a review.

Manuscripts submitted to the journal will be assessed for suitability for publication in the journal by the Editor-in-Chief. Manuscripts that are deemed unsuitable may be rejected without peer review by the Editor-in-Chief and/or the Associate Editors, and the author will be informed as soon as possible.

Manuscripts that are deemed suitable for peer review are assigned to appropriate anonymous referees (a minimum of two) for confidential review. Referee reports are then assessed by the the Editor-in-Chief. Once approved this decision is then conveyed to the author along with the referees’ anonymized reports.

The initial decision will be one of the following: rejection, acceptance without revision, or potentially acceptable after minor or major revisions. Revised manuscripts will be appraised by the Editor-in-Chief, who may seek the opinion of referees (prior or new) before making a decision. This decision is then conveyed to the author along with the anonymized referees’ reports. Once accepted, manuscripts are normally published on-line without delay and appear in the next available print issue (published quarterly).

The Editor-in-Chief has ultimate responsibility for what is published in the journal. Authors may appeal decisions by contacting the Editor-in-Chief (at Authors will be informed in writing of the result of their appeal.

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Latest Special Issue – View all our journal articles here, including the latest issue (Volume 41, issue 3-4).

Journal Impact Factor – The latest Journal Citation Reports sees RNN's Impact Factor changing to 2.8 (Source Clarivate, 2023). The journal is listed in the category of Neurosciences (SCIE).

Sustainable Development Goals

The content of this journal relates to SDG:

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