The scope of this book is that the pharmaceutical industry must change the way it operates. The editors of this book feel that the current business model is economically unsustainable and incapable to meet expectations of modern society. The number of novel medications in the global industry pipeline is insufficient to suffice demand of the markets, the financial performance of several companies is declining, sales and marketing costs are rising, regulatory constraints are increasingly challenging and overall reputation of industry is tarnishing. Unmet medical needs must be better addressed and tangible benefits need to be exposed in order to be rewarded by healthcare payers. In addition, the focus is shifting from simple treatment of the ill to preventative measures and health management. This volume addresses newest development in synthetic and medicinal chemistry with the emphasis on global challenges. One of the goals is to ensure that new chemistry develops novel technologies in which system biology approach or target approach is computer simulated, testing is performed in silico on rat or human digital models and synthesis of molecules is restricted to intelligent synthesis of treatments based on simulations. Implementation of such new technologies requires the pharmaceutical industry to rethink and adopt the current business model in order to contribute value to the healthcare systems of the future.