Recent Advances in Imaging the Prostate presents articles by some of the leading investigators in imaging cancer of the prostate (Pca). These articles address the state-of-the-art in imaging Pca using magnetic-resonance imaging and spectroscopy, ultrasound spectroscopy and elastography, and positron-emission tomography. They offer hope that new, reliable and clinically usable means of imaging Pca may be on the horizon. The need for improved means of Pca imaging is urgent, because current conventional, clinical and imaging methods are seriously deficient in depicting cancerous foci within the prostate gland, and consequently, current methods are of limited use in guiding needle biopsies, planning treatment and staging disease. However, the articles in this publication describe advanced techniques that show exciting promise for overcoming the limitations of current conventional methods, and that offer the possibility of making significant breakthroughs in Pca imaging. Alone or in combination, these advanced imaging methods will hopefully satisfy the urgent need for reliable means of imaging PCa, and will enable a quantum step forward in managing the cancer that, for men in most developed countries, is the most common non-dermatological cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death.