Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors consisting of 49 members identified in the human genome. Nuclear receptors regulate transcription by binding to response elements in the regulatory regions of target genes and thereby affect expression of genes involved in differentiation, growth, lipid homeostasis, inflammation and immunity. Over the past two decades significant advances have been made in the understanding of the regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptors. The knowledge on nuclear receptors has delivered novel therapies for lipid control and hormone replacement, and for management of cancer and diabetes. Therefore, nuclear receptors are attractive molecular targets for design of therapy for diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration. The focus of this volume is centered on the mechanistic involvement of nuclear receptors in cardiological, metabolic and neurological disorders, on possible explanation of pathways involved in pathogenesis, on susceptibility to and prevention of metabolic and neurological disorders and on the aspects of drug finding including chemistry and rational drug design. This volume reviews recent progress on nuclear receptors critically and will intrigue those pursuing interest in physiology, pathology and medicine.